Here is an outlined version of Aquinas’s Argument from Design, or his Fifth Way. This is just an outline. The full series of articles can be found here, here, and here. Refer to those for the whole, in depth explanations and defenses of the various premises.
- In our universe we experience regular cause-effect relationships, where causes have specific, determinate effects
- The only sufficient metaphysical explanation of these cause-effect relationships is the principle of finality, which states that causes are intrinsically directed/ordered to determinate effects as ends
- In order for a cause to be intrinsically ordered/directed to a determinate effect as to an end, that effect/end must in some sense exist prior to the action of the cause
- But an effect cannot exist in real being prior to the action of the cause, because then the effect would be prior to its cause, which is absurd
- So the effect/end must exist in the order of mental being, as an idea, prior to the causal action
- Hence the ends of all causal actions must exist in some Supreme Intelligence which directs those causes to their ends.
- These ends are intrinsic to the nature/essence of the beings which act causally, so what directs the beings to their ends must be likewise the cause of the existence of those essences/natures, which (per the Second Way) must be a Being of Pure Act, or Being Itself
- This is what we call God